Modern ethics is first and foremost, the science that allows to consider human relationships, as well as to evaluate the behavior of people in terms of generally accepted norms. Ethics is a kind of investigation—and includes both the activity of investigating as well as the results of that investigation—whereas morality is the subject matter that ethics investigates. For example, if the current year is 2008 and a journal has a 5 year moving wall, articles from the year 2002 are available. Alex: Well I think it’s up to the owners of the business to decide how they want to run their business.
While one engineer may deny manifesting in the project on moral basis, the business may find a less painstaking engineer who will be ready to manifest in the project for a payoff, thus saving the business the cost of restyling. There is some danger in assigning responsibility for an action to an individual or entity simply because they derive a benefit from that action.
What a business person can learn from a philosopher is the need to be able to explain and justify what it is that their particular corporation is doing. Albert Carr’s very popular essay, Is Business Bluffing Ethical?” argues that deception, for example, is a legitimate part of business. According to the dictionary, the term ethics has a variety of different meanings.
Laws which govern such business behavior and choices deal with legally right and wrong aspects; they do not and cannot deal with morally right or wrong choices, so long as they are not legally wrong. There are many more examples regarding the impact of belief systems on business ethics.
For example, most major corporations today promote their commitment to non-economic values under headings such as ethics codes and social responsibility charters. For example, case studies are often presented in which an employee is faced with whether or not to lie, steal, cheat, abuse another, break terms of a contract, etc. When there is no social connection between the individuals, the motivation of the other person to intervene is less defensible.